Monday, 10 June 2013

Running OTD HA with minimal root usage


Introduction

An as yet un-documented aspect of the Oracle Traffic Director 11.1.1.7 (OTD) new features, has introduced the ability to operate a highly available load balancing group within the Infiniband fabric but keeping to a minimum usage of the root account. In previous releases to enable the high availability features of the failover group it was necessary for a couple of the OTD running processes to be run with the root privileges, this was something that security conscious customers found disconcerting. 
This blog posting is courtesy of one of my colleagues, Mark Mundy who has been pulling together some instructions on how to setup OTD in an HA configuration and using minimal root user privileges. 

Why is root needed at all?

Before we can demonstrate how we can minimise the use of root in an HA OTD set up it is worth explaining a little of where OTD requires root permission. This will hopefully give the reader an appreciation of why it is used and even in a minimal use scenario how little ‘damage’ using it to execute part of the process stack can do.
Oracle Traffic Director provides support for failover between the instances in a failover group by using an implementation of the Virtual Routing Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), this being keepalived for Linux.
Keepalived v1.2.2 is included in the current Exalogic Guest Base Template and so you do not need to install or configure it. Oracle Traffic Director uses only the VRRP subsystem. If you wish to discover more about keepalived go to http://www.keepalived.org.  (If you are using Solaris then the implementation is done using the Solaris vrrpd service.)
VRRP specifies how routers can failover a VIP address from one node to another if the first node becomes unavailable for any reason. The IP failover is implemented by a router process running on each of the nodes. In a two-node failover group, the router process on the node to which the VIP is currently addressed is called the master. The master continuously advertises its presence to the router process on the second node. Only the root user can start or stop this keepalived process which controls the VIP and so without root permission having a highly available VIP would not be possible. With the 11.1.1.7 release of OTD it is possible to configure a highly available VIP utilising keepalived and root however all other processes associated with OTD such as the instance, the primordial and watchdog will be executed as a non root user. No user data is exposed to the keepalived process.

Example OTD configuration

There are a number of ways that Oracle Traffic Director can be deployed and utilised but for the purposes of this example the simplest and most common approach has been adopted. This design utilises the Exalogic Storage Array for all of the OTD collateral utilising a number of shares within the same project. The design consists of three identical vServers created all with the same vServer type and networking capability. The diagram below should give an idea of the layout of both the vServers and what they are hosting as well as how they are utilising various shares on the storage array. Notice that the Admin Server and Admin Node 1 are using OTD binaries from one share while the Admin Node 2 uses a different one. This will ensure if there is a need to patch OTD it can be done with a degree of availability while this is happening. There is one share for the entire OTD configuration in this example.


The 2 vServers hosting admin nodes work as local proxies for the OTD administration server and it is on these nodes that the highly available instances will perform the actions as designed within the loadbalancing configuration. In previous releases of OTD with this setup it was possible to avoid using root to run the administration server but the admin nodes that run an HA loadbalanced instance required root for a large part, if not all, of their administration and execution. In the latest release this has changed and it is this that is exploited in this example.

Configuring the Admin Server node

The first vServer that needs to be configured is the one hosting the administration server. There is no need to use the root account on this vServer after the specific shares that are needed by OTD have been permanently mounted. This note will not go into the details of how this is achieved as it is assumed the reader is familiar with this. The first share that is required to be temporarily mounted is the /export/common/general share available on the Exalogic storage array. This needs to be mounted and the OTD 11.1.1.7 installer placed in a directory within it (available from Oracle edelivery) and unzipped. An example being /mnt/common/general/OTD11117/Disk1. This can then be un-mounted when OTD has been installed. There is also a need to permanently mount two shares one for the binaries and another for the configurations.



/export/OTDExample/Primary_Install -> /u01/OTD
/export/OTDExample/OTDInstances -> /u01/OTDConfiguration
In this example the user chosen to install and run the Admin Server is the pre-configured oracle user and so ensure that the share mount points are owned by the oracle user on the ZFS appliance.  (See my earlier blog posting about creating shares on the ZFS appliance.)

There is now no additional need to utilise the root account on this vServer. Everything in this section should now be performed as the oracle user or an equivalent non privileged user of your choice.
For simplicity the OTD installer will be installed using a silent installer approach below is an example of how this can be achieved.


 
$ oracle@OTDAdminServer ~]$ /mnt/common/general/OTD11117/Disk1/runInstaller -silent -waitforcompletion -invPtrLoc /home/oracle/oraInst.loc ORACLE_HOME=/u01/OTD/ SKIP_SOFTWARE_UPDATES=TRUE
  The ORACLE_HOME location is where the OTD binaries will be laid down and this will populate the primary binary location on the share. The invPtrLoc will need to point to a previously created file called oraInst.loc which should contain the location of the Oracle Inventory. In this example this file contains the following:


 
$ cd /home/oracle
$ cat oraInst.log
inventory_log=/home/oracle/oraInventory
$
 For more information on silently installing Oracle Traffic Director refer to the documentation
Once the installation is complete the OTD admin server can be created and started. To create the admin server the following command can be used:


 
$ oracle@OTDAdminServer ~]$ /u01/OTD/bin/tadm configure-server --user=admin --java-home=/u01/OTD/jdk/ --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/
 When this is executed you will be prompted to provide an OTD admin user password of your choice and then the admin server will be created with its home directory under the /u01/OTDInstances share called admin-server
The admin server can now be started with the following command


 
$ oracle@OTDAdminServer ~]$ /u01/OTDInstances/admin-server/bin/startserv
 When the admin server has started it will be possible as the output will note, to access the admin console from a browser.
Log in and create a new test configuration of your choosing and provide a fake origin server so as to complete the configuration. This is only to demonstrate and the configuration can be later deleted to be replaced with a production one created. Do not deploy the configuration at this stage. Leave the admin console open and for the test configuration enable the plain text report in the virtual server monitoring section. This is done so as to later give us an idea that everything is working as expected in terms of the HA element of OTD.



This completes the work to get the admin server operational and as you can see in terms of OTD no use of the root privilege to configure, start or stop.
Configuring the Admin nodes
The admin nodes now need to be created and started and this is where with earlier releases of OTD there was a heavier requirement for the root account. The new release needs far less and this is demonstrated here by the fact that in order to minimise root use it is now possible to create and start and stop admin nodes without root. In this section we will do this.

Setup the first Instance node

After logging on to the first of the admin nodes (OTDNode1) as root there is an initial requirement to set up permanent shares to both the primary OTD install location and the configuration as there was with the admin server.  These shares are the same as were mounted for the Administration Server.  The mounting of these shares are the only time you require root access for this section.
Using a non privileged account such as the pre-configured oracle account you can now create an admin node and register it with the admin server previously created and started. Prior to running the command ensure the following.
  1. Create a sub-directory under /u01/OTDInstances with the hostname of this vServer
  2. Ensure that the admin server hostname is resolvable on the private IPoIB vNet in the /etc/hosts file
  3. Ensure that the admin node host name is resolvable in the admin server /etc/hosts file on the IPoIB private vNet created
The following example command will show the creation of the admin node.


 
$ /u01/OTD/bin/tadm configure-server --user=admin --java-home=/u01/OTD/jdk/ --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1 --server-user=oracle --admin-node --host=OTDAdminServer
The share primary binary location is used to launch the command and you will notice that the admin node server-user is the non privileged oracle user. After providing the admin password and accepting the self signed certificate the admin node should be created.
It is now possible to start the admin node using the startserv script located in the OTDNode1 bin directory. Note previously in order to utilise an HA OTD configuration this would need to be executed as root or as a user in the sudoers list.

Setup the Second Instance Node

Now that the first admin node is running it is possible to do the same with the second admin node.
Before the admin node can be created and started it needs to install OTD into the secondary binary location using a variation of the silent install for the admin server. This will mean mounting temporarily the /export/common/general share and then using the same kit to install OTD to the Secondary_Install share.
The second admin node should have the following shares mounted permanently


/export/OTDExample/Secondary_Install -> /u01/OTD
/export/OTDExample/OTDInstances -> /u01/OTDConfiguration
  
Thus the second instance will run binaries from a separate install from the other instances but the running configuration is located under the same share.

Prior to running the create command ensure the three pre-requisites as above are complete then you can run as an example


$ /u01/OTD/bin/tadm configure-server --user=admin --java-home=/u01/OTD/jdk/ --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode2 --server-user=oracle --admin-node --host=OTDAdminServ
 
 One created the second admin node can be started using the startserv script under the OTDNode2 instance directory.  

Deploying a basic configuration

The next step is to utilise the admin console or indeed the command line to deploy the current basic configuration and create instances of it on the 2 admin nodes already running. This will not mean we have a highly available loadbalancing pattern but will at this stage mean we have 2 instances hosting the loadbalancing configuration that can be independently accessed on the public EoIB ip addresses assigned to each of the vServers when they were created. We will use the admin console to firstly ensure the 2 admin nodes are available and running and then to deploy the configuration to them both.

Here we can see we have 2 operational admin nodes with no instances deployed to them.
By hitting the deploy button to the top right and selecting the 2 otd admin nodes and NOT the admin server we can deploy the configuration and have 2 instances created one on each node.

The instances can now be started from the admin console. To verify the 2 instances are working it is possible in separate browser tabs to access the instance on the public EoIB ip address assigned to it and get performance metrics from it.  An example url is shown below and by using the IP address for each of the instances then metrics from both instances will be displayed.

http://<OTDNode1-EoIB-IP> :8080/.perf
At this stage it is also possible to verify that the entire OTD process tree for an admin node is all executing as the non privileged user as this example shows:


oracle 19808 0.0 0.0 25648 812 ? Ss May14 0:00 trafficd-wdog -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/confi
oracle 19809 0.0 0.3 149568 15156 ? S May14 0:17 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/config
oracle 19810 0.1 3.5 769996 141768 ? Sl May14 1:23 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/co
oracle 19897 0.0 0.0 11560 968 ? Ss May14 0:00 \_ /u01/OTD/lib/Cgistub -f /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0
oracle 12508 0.0 0.0 11560 340 ? S 02:13 0:00 \_ /u01/OTD/lib/Cgistub -f /tmp/admin-server-4baa
oracle 12609 0.0 0.0 25648 812 ? Ss 02:16 0:00 trafficd-wdog -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config -r
oracle 12610 0.3 0.3 135016 12232 ? S 02:16 0:00 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config -r
oracle 12611 0.0 0.5 259904 23304 ? Sl 02:16 0:00 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config

Creating a failover group

Now we need to create a failover group to enable the configuration deployed to be made highly available. It is at this point that there is still a requirement to use the root privilege. The first stage in enabling an HA loadbalancing configuration is to create a failover group. This does not require root permission to create, however it will need root permission to activate. Creating a failover group can be done either via the command line or the admin console. For this example we will use the command line. From any of the three vServers log in as the oracle user and issue the following example command to create a new failover group within the configuration already created and active.

[oracle@OTDAdminServer ~]$/u01/OTD/bin/tadm create-failover-group --config=test --virtual-ip=<ip_on_public_EoIB --primary-node otdnode1 --backup-node=otdnode2 --router-id=230 --verbose --port=8989 --user=admin --host=OTDAdminServer --network-prefix-length=21
Enter admin-user-password>
OTD-63008 The operation was successful on nodes [otdnode1, otdnode2].
Warning on node 'otdnode2':
OTD-67334 Could not start failover due to insufficient privileges. Execute the start-failover command on node 'otdnode2' as a privileged user.
Warning on node 'otdnode1':
OTD-67334 Could not start failover due to insufficient privileges. Execute the start-failover command on node 'otdnode1' as a privileged user.
  
The failover group is created however you will see that 2 warnings are given. This is because although the non privileged user can create a failover group, it does not have permission to start the keepalived process. In our scenario the 2 instances are already running and so this warning is generated. This is the first of the changes in 11.1.1.7 to be encountered. The new command start-failover allows only what is required to be started as root to be performed separately. In order to complete the ability to run OTD in an HA configuration the command needs to be run as root or as a non privileged user who is part of the sudoers list locally on each of the admin nodes. This warning would not be seen if the instances were not already running but if an attempt was made to start an instance as a non privileged user in a failover group a warning would be issued about the need to start the failover group separately.
In order to minimise the use of root the preferred way to issue the start-failover command is via the non privileged user after adding it to the sudoers list. The specific permission required to allow this is as follows for the non privileged user and in this case we use the oracle user.

# cat /etc/sudoers | grep oracle
oracle ALL=(root) /u01/OTD/bin/tadm
 To set this up as root on each of the 2 admin nodes execute visudo and add the line to give the oracle user the privilege to run the tadm command.

Once this has been set up the start-failover command can be issued locally on each of the admin node vServers as this example shows.


$ sudo /u01/OTD/bin/tadm start-failover --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1 --config=test
[sudo] password for oracle:
OTD-70198 Failover has been started successfully

It is now possible from a browser to access the text based performance statistics as before but on the public vip assigned to the HA OTD configuration. A quick look at the process tree for an OTD admin node will now show what this new command has done.

oracle 19808 0.0 0.0 25648 812 ? Ss May14 0:00 trafficd-wdog -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0 -u orac
oracle 19809 0.0 0.3 149568 15156 ? S May14 0:17 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0 -u oracl
oracle 19810 0.1 3.5 770244 142548 ? Sl May14 1:26 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/admin-server/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0 -u o
oracle 19897 0.0 0.0 11560 968 ? Ss May14 0:00 \_ /u01/OTD/lib/Cgistub -f /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0/.cgistub_19810
oracle 12508 0.0 0.0 11560 340 ? S 02:13 0:00 \_ /u01/OTD/lib/Cgistub -f /tmp/admin-server-4baa05d0/.cgistub_19810
oracle 12857 0.0 0.0 25648 808 ? Ss 02:25 0:00 trafficd-wdog -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/net-test-b92c33b1 -u oracle
oracle 12858 0.0 0.3 135016 12236 ? S 02:25 0:00 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/net-test-b92c33b1 -u oracle
oracle 12859 0.0 0.5 259908 23308 ? Sl 02:25 0:00 \_ trafficd -d /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config -r /u01/OTD -t /tmp/net-test-b92c33b1 -u oracle
root 12986 0.0 0.0 35852 504 ? Ss 02:29 0:00 /usr/sbin/keepalived --vrrp --use-file /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config/keepalived.conf --pid /tmp/net-
root 12987 0.0 0.0 37944 1012 ? S 02:29 0:00 \_ /usr/sbin/keepalived --vrrp --use-file /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/config/keepalived.conf --pid /tmp/root 12987 0.0 0.0 37944 1012 ? S 02:29 0:00 \_ /usr/sbin/keepalived --vrrp --use-file /u01/OTDInstances/O
As you can see, now only the keepalived processes are running as root with everything else run as oracle. In previous releases a lot more of the process tree would have been run as root in order to achieve the same thing.

Starting and stopping the instances hosting the failover group

There are some important points to note around how with a minimal root use set up loadbalancing instances are stopped and started. As the previous section described, with an instance in a failover group, there is a requirement to start the failover element as a privileged user. It is still possible either through the admin console or via the command line to start an instance non privileged, however a warning will be generated in the console messages to remind the administrator to explicitly start the nodes associated keepalived configuration as a privileged user only if started through the admin console. Until this is done the vip is not operational.

It is important to note that if starting via the CLI the instance will start but no warning about explicitly starting the failover group will be given and this means that an administrator could think the HA vip was working when it will not be. In any scripted startup it is important to ensure after starting the instance the start-failover command is issued locally to each of the instances in the group.
Stopping an instance is also a two stage process, as an instance attempted to be stopped via a non privileged user either through the admin console or the CLI will fail until the associated failover group on the node on which it is running is stopped. This can be shown by the following examples.
From the admin console attempting to stop instances before stopping the failover group.



From the CLI attempting to stop an instance.

$ /u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1/net-test/bin/stopserv
[ERROR:32] server is not stopped because failover is running. Before stopping the server, execute stop-failover command as a privileged user
For either approach, prior to stopping the instance, there is a need to run the stop of the failover group locally as a privileged user as seen below.

$ sudo /u01/OTD/bin/tadm stop-failover --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1 --config=test
It is worth pointing out however that the number of times an instance needs to be stopped and restarted is minimal due to the way most of the configuration changes made are dynamically applied to an instance. By utilising the administration console or including in CLI based configuration changes the ‘reconfig-instance’ command stops and starts can be minimised. 
 

Changing the primary failover instance

The situation may arise where there is a need to ‘flip’ the current owner of the OTD HA vip to the backup node. One such occasion being a possible maintenance window and ordinarily this would be achieved by issuing the ‘Toggle Primary’ button in the admin console or the tadm set-failover-group-primary command. These are still applicable and can be initiated by a non privileged user however there is an additional step that needs to be performed from the CLI locally on the admin nodes.
If you use the admin console to toggle the primary you will see a warning generated however the console will acknowledge the new primary group member.

Testing to see if the backup is now primary by accessing it will show that the existing primary is still the primary, despite the console saying otherwise.
Similarly if the switch is made using the CLI the following warning is given but after the warning the administration ‘thinks’ the switch has been made.

$ /u01/OTD/bin/tadm set-failover-group-primary --config=test --virtual-ip=10.1.5.126 --primary-node=otdnode2 --user=admin --host=OTDAdminServer
Enter admin-user-password>
OTD-63008 The operation was successful on nodes [otdnode1, otdnode2].
Warning on node 'otdnode2':
OTD-67335 Could not restart failover due to insufficient privileges. Execute the start-failover command on node 'otdnode2' as a privileged user.
Warning on node 'otdnode1':
OTD-67335 Could not restart failover due to insufficient privileges. Execute the start-failover command on node 'otdnode1' as a privileged user.
$ /u01/OTD/bin/tadm list-failover-groups --config=test --user=admin --port=8989 --host=OTDAdminServer --all Enter admin-user-password>
10.1.5.126 otdnode2 otdnode1

In order to actually make the toggle active the failover group needs to be restarted and this will force a re-read of the keepalived.conf which will ensure the vip is plumbed up on the new primary host. This command needs to be executed as the privileged user on both instances. It is therefore paramount to ensure that if there is a need to toggle the primary vip host that this two stage process is carried out.

[oracle@OTDNode2 ~]$ sudo /u01/OTD/bin/tadm stop-failover --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode2 --config=test
[sudo] password for oracle:
OTD-70201 Failover has been stopped successfully.
[oracle@OTDNode2 ~]$ sudo /u01/OTD/bin/tadm start-failover --instance-home=/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode2 --config=test
OTD-70198 Failover has been started successfully.

Deleting a failover group

Deleting a failover group is also now with minimal root usage, a two stage process that needs to be understood. If you decide to delete a failover group from the admin console or the CLI and the instances in the failover group are running then although the console and the CLI will allow a non privileged user to delete the group, a warning will be generated to alert that the failover group has not been stopped. The keepalived.conf will be removed; however the vip will still be active. It will only be destroyed once the stop-failover command has been executed locally by the privileged user on all instances of the failover group. It is important to realise this and perform the 2 operations close together to ensure that when removing a failover group the vip associated is stopped as well.
Here is an example of the warning in the admin console.

Known Issues

There is a known issue currently outstanding with Oracle Traffic Director that will cause issues if after initial configuration, the administration server is stopped and restarted and the node names chosen to be used in the deployment contain any upper case letters. The issue manifests itself in the admin console where messages like the following are seen Error in parsing configuration TechDemoMWConfig. OTD-63763 Configuration 'test' has not been deployed to node 'OTDNode1'’. After this any attempts to subsequently modify the configuration will fail. This is a bug resolved in a later release and so to workaround this for now there are 2 choices.
Use only lowercase node names for the configuration
Log in as the non privileged user to the administration server vServer and edit the ../config-store/server-farm.xml’ for the administration server node and convert the node names to all lowercase – eg otdnode1. Save the file and then restart the administration server.

Setting up manually simple init.d scripts for vServer start/stop

Because none of the nodes has been configured or executed as root, the new feature available in 11.1.1.7.0 to automatically create init.d startup/shutdown services is not available. Therefore in order to have both nodes and instances start and stop cleanly when a vServer is shutdown or started, manually created and configured /etc/init.d scripts need to be put in place. This clearly requires the use of the root account but is a one off exercise to set up. Here we show an example that can be used to give at least a rudimentary start/stop script for your OTD minimal root privilege environment. These scripts are far less rich in terms of functionality than those provided by the product.
For the administration server node only one init.d script is required to be created and in this example this is called otd-admin-server. An example can be seen here that can be tailored to suit a specific environment:

#!/bin/sh
#
# Startup script for the Oracle Traffic Director 11.1.1.7
# chkconfig: 2345 85 15
# description: Oracle Traffic Director is a fast, \
# reliable, scalable, and secure solution for \
# load balancing HTTP/S traffic to servers in \
# the back end.
# processname: trafficd
#
ORACLE_HOME="/u01/OTD"
OTD_USER=oracle
INSTANCE_HOME="/u01/OTDInstances/AdminServer"
INSTANCE_NAME="admin-server"
PRODUCT_NAME="Oracle Traffic Director"
OTD_TADM_SCRIPT=/tmp/otd_script
case "$1" in
start)
COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/admin-server/bin/startserv"
su - $OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm start-snmp-subagent --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
su - $OTD_USER -c ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
;;
stop)
echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm stop-snmp-subagent --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
su - $OTD_USER -c ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/admin-server/bin/stopserv"
su - $OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
;;
status)
ps -ef | grep $INSTANCE_NAME
;;
*)
echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status}"
exit 1

esac
Once saved and made executable with a chmod +x.
Issuing the following as root within the /etc/init.d directory will configure the script to be started and stopped appropriately as the vServer is.

# chkconfig otd-admin-server on

On each of the admin nodes, 2 scripts need to be created so as to be able to stop the highly available instance and failover group independently of the admin node.
For the admin nodes create a script in the /etc/init.d directory called otd-admin-server and tailor the example below to reflect your environment:

#!/bin/sh
#
# Startup script for the Oracle Traffic Director 11.1.1.7
# chkconfig: 2345 85 15
# description: Oracle Traffic Director is a fast, \
# reliable, scalable, and secure solution for \
# load balancing HTTP/S traffic to servers in \
# the back end.
# processname: trafficd
#
ORACLE_HOME="/u01/OTD"
OTD_USER=oracle
INSTANCE_HOME="/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1"
INSTANCE_NAME="admin-server"
PRODUCT_NAME="Oracle Traffic Director"
OTD_TADM_SCRIPT=/tmp/otd_script
case "$1" in
start)
COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/admin-server/bin/startserv"
su - $OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm start-snmp-subagent --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
su - $OTD_USER -c ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
;;
stop)
echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm stop-snmp-subagent --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
su - $OTD_USER -c ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/admin-server/bin/stopserv"
su - $OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
;;
status)
ps -ef | grep admin-server
;;
*)
echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status}"
exit 1

esac
 
Now create a second script on each of the admin nodes this time called otd-net-test for the highly available instance and again this example can be tailored to suit your environment. The name being based is the configuration the instance is hosting:

#!/bin/sh
#
# Startup script for the Oracle Traffic Director 11.1.1.7
# chkconfig: 2345 85 15
# description: Oracle Traffic Director is a fast, \
# reliable, scalable, and secure solution for \
# load balancing HTTP/S traffic to servers in \
# the back end.
# processname: trafficd
#

ORACLE_HOME="/u01/OTD"
OTD_USER=oracle
INSTANCE_HOME="/u01/OTDInstances/OTDNode1"
INSTANCE_NAME="net- TechDemoMWConfig"
PRODUCT_NAME="Oracle Traffic Director"
OTD_TADM_SCRIPT=/tmp/otd_script

case "$1" in
start)
    COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/$INSTANCE_NAME/bin/startserv"
    su - $OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
    echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm start-failover --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME --config=TechDemoMWConfig" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    $OTD_TADM_SCRIPT
    rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    ;;
stop)
    echo "$ORACLE_HOME/bin/tadm stop-failover --instance-home $INSTANCE_HOME --config=TechDemoMWConfig" > ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    chmod 755 ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    $OTD_TADM_SCRIPT
    rm -f ${OTD_TADM_SCRIPT}
    COMMAND="$INSTANCE_HOME/$INSTANCE_NAME/bin/stopserv"
    su -$OTD_USER -c $COMMAND
    ;;
status)
    ps -ef | grep $INSTANCE_NAME
    ;;
*)
    echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status}"
    exit 1
esac
 
 
Note these scripts not only stop and start the instance and admin nodes, the instance one also ensures that the failover group is started as the root privileged user. It is also worth pointing out that there is an additional command to start and stop the SNMP sub-agent, this is optional and only required if it is the intention to have, at a later date your OTD estate to be monitored via an Enterprise Manager 12C agent.
Once the 2 scripts are complete, as root, the chkconfig <script_name> on command can be executed to enable them.
The new services can be tested by running the following as the root user on each of the vServers in turn to see that the OTD estate stops and then restarts.


service otd-net-test stop
service otd-admin-server stop
service otd-admin-server start
service otd-net-test start
When complete it will be possible to stop any one of the vServers and maintain a load balancing capability and when restarted the OTD components on the vServer will automatically restart on startup.
Utilising this note you will now have a highly available Oracle Traffic Directory configuration that is only using the root privilege where it is strictly required to do so.

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